Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

history of architecture

The architecture was born of the dynamics between needs (needs a conducive environment, security, etc.), and means (available building materials and construction technology). Prehistoric and primitive architecture is an early stage of this dynamics. Then the man becomes more developed and knowledge began to take shape through oral traditions and practices, architecture evolved into a skill. At this stage there is a trial process, improvisation, or impersonation to become a successful outcome. An architect was not an important figure, he is merely continuing the tradition. Vernacular architecture was born of such approaches and is still practiced in many parts of the world.
Past human settlements were essentially rural. Then there arose a surplus of production, so that rural communities develop into urban society. Complexity and typology of buildings increases. Technological development of public facilities such as roads and bridges were developed. The new building typologies such as schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities emerged. Religious architecture remained an important part in society. Evolving architectural styles, and writing about architecture began to appear. Written works is a set of rules (canons) to be followed, especially in the development of religious architecture. Examples of these include the canon of writings by Vitruvius, or Vaastu Shastra of ancient India. In the period of Classical and Medieval Europe, the building is not the work of individual architects, but professional associations (guilds) is formed by the artisans / expert building skills to organize the project.
At the time of the Enlightenment, the humanities and the emphasis on individual becomes more important than religion, and a new beginning in the architecture. Development are assigned to individual architects - Michaelangelo, Brunelleschi, Leonardo da Vinci - and the cult of personality began. But at that moment, there is no clear division of tasks between artists, architects, and engineers or other areas of work-related. At this stage, an artist can design a bridge as it is still counting on the structure of a general nature.
Along with the incorporation of knowledge from many disciplines (eg engineering), and the emergence of new building materials and technology, an architect shift its focus from technical aspects to the building aesthetics. Then the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with bouwheer (client) is rich and concentrated on the visual elements in a form that refers to the historical examples. In the 19 th century, the Ecole des Beaux Arts in France to train would-be architect sketches and create beautiful images without emphasizing its context.
Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution opened the door for public consumption, so that the aesthetics of a size that can be achieved even by the middle class. Products used to be limited in scope ornate aesthetic expensive skills, become affordable through mass production. Such products are not to have the beauty and honesty in the expression of a production process.
Dissatisfaction with such a situation at the beginning of the 20th century gave birth to the ideas underlying Modern Architecture, among others, the Deutscher Werkbund (established 1907) that produce the machine-made objects with better quality is the point of birth of the profession in the field of industrial design. After that, the Bauhaus school (established in Germany in 1919) rejected the past and chose to see the history of architecture as a synthesis of art, skill, and technology.
When Modern architecture began to be practiced, it is the vanguard of a movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic. Truth sought by rejecting history and turning to the function that gave birth to the form. Architects then became a prominent figure and was dubbed the "master". And modern architecture into the sphere of mass production because of its simplicity and economic factors.
However, the general public to feel a decrease in the quality of modern architecture in the 1960s, partly because of lack of meaning, sterility, ugliness, uniformity, and psychological impacts. Most of the architects answered through the Post-Modern Architecture with enterprise architecture to form more acceptable to the public on a visual level, although at the expense of depth. Robert Venturi argues that "the shack adorned / decorated shed" (an ordinary building interior was designed as functional as its ornate exterior) is better than a "duck / duck" (a building in which both form and function into one). Venturi opinion is a basic approach to Post-Modern Architecture.
Most of the other architects (and also non-architect) responded by pointing out what they thought was the root of the problem. They felt that architecture is not a philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by private individuals, but the architecture must consider the needs of everyday people and use technology to achieve an environment that can be occupied. Design Methodology Movement involving people such as Chris Jones or Christopher Alexander started searching for a more inclusive process in the design, to get better results. Peneilitian depth in areas such as behavior, environment, and the humanities do to be the basis of the design process.
Along with the increasing complexity of building, architecture becomes more multi-disciplinary than ever. Architecture today needs a professional bunch in the process. This is the current state of professional architects. However, individuals still favored architect in the design of buildings and look for meaningful cultural symbol. For example, an art museum into the land of experimentation dekonstruktivis style today, but tomorrow maybe something else.